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Here they rarely build with brick, let alone with stonework; the walls are raised with two rows of strong beams or bars, between which the mud is applied, a system very similar to the French method. The palace of the governor, formerly the College of the Jesuits, is beautiful in style, but now threatens ruin; also the

Governor's Palace, Sao Paulo

bishop's palace and the Carmelite monastery are imposing buildings; the cathedral and some other churches are large, though tastefully ornamented; Overall, the style of architecture is insignificant and bourgeois. The city has three convents of friars: Franciscan, Carmelitan and Benedictine; two cloisters of nuns and two hospitals. Lieutenant Colonel Muller has been building a wooden bullfighting ring out of town, apparently in good condition, and deserves praise for the construction of three masonry bridges over the streams: Tamandatai and Inhagabai (1) which meet gather below the city.

City of Sao Paulo 1817

In the annals of Brazil, Sao Paulo has greater historical interest than all other cities. Here the ancient pious Jesuit priests Nobrega and Anchieta worked here in the conversion of a peaceful tribe of Goianas, under the command of the Tibiric chief. After many trials which earned them the title of thaumaturgists, they founded, with the help of Portuguese settlers from Sao Vicente, in 1527, a seminary, the first religious institution in the interior of Brazil.

Nobrega and Anchieta 1527

Many circumstances, first of all, like the climate and the meek, phlegmatic spirit of the Indians who married with the Europeans soon favored this colony; After only a century, we have already found the Paulistas in the activity of fearless ventures. Now they lead, after the country came under Spanish rule, the war to distant Spanish provinces, incited by the desire for Portuguese independence and freedom; now they venture, coveting gold, in all directions, inland, and exert their decisive influences upon the whole country, and even upon the motherland, by their happy discoveries. As a result of these developments, one can see on the freer side the development of civil organization, although on the other hand feuds between families, almost of the same kind as feuds among the small states of Italy in the Middle Ages, exacerbated by the struggle against Taubate's neighbors; Thus, in the space of a hundred and fifty years or so, the history of these intimate family struggles, which spread throughout the province, unfolds before the viewer's eye. In this sense, Sao Paulo is distinguished, among all the cities of Brazil, and more than in any

(l) The current pronunciation of the two watercourses has always been Tamanduatei and Anhangabau. The first one means "rio grande grande" and the second one means "rio da diabrura". (Rev. Nota, Inst. Hist. And Geog. Bras.).