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In the valleys, several settlers were established, on the margins of small streams, whose very extensive Turkish wheat farms showed in these solitary regions the first traces of culture. The third bump, Morro Formoso, recalls, by its bolder

Morro Formoso, the beautiful mountain

form, larger, more spaced and abrupt blocks, like the mountains around Rio de Janeiro, and marks the boundary between the captaincy of Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo. Along the way, which makes many turns towards SSW in the mountains, granite appears in many places with very rusty shale mica containing small hematite veins in the 2nd degree of the compass used in the mines, with very strong angle of inclination; Also appearing here and there are blocks of considerable size of compact limonite, and large pieces of hard white quartz.

From Morro Formoso, which forms both the basin and the watershed in this eastern branch of the Serra do Mar, the path goes down through more sprawling and cheerful hills where the settlements and farms begin. Despite the weariness that the ruined paths and the continual downpours caused us, we were compensated by the splendor of nature; Moreover, it seems that these regions are the homeland of the most beautiful butterflies, which flock in the millions with their resplendent multicolored wings above the sunlit streams.

Papilio ascanius

On the third day, after leaving Bananal, passing the river and the village of Barreiro, we reached Sant'Ana das Areias, a very large village, which was only recently created by the king. Above all, the Government seeks to gather a larger number of settlers, granting them this title and the resulting prerogatives, thus obtaining double profits, because, thus oriented, both immigrants gain in civilization and spirit of citizenship, as the State gains with the ease of administration, impact perception, militia regularization and recruitment. Throughout the country, which, due to its large extension, has only a few settlements, it is certainly in the Government's interest to form some localities with the increase of population and life of industries, and raise them to the highest degree of civil prerogatives, since by isolating the population, it is spread throughout the great part of the country. And how can we assure everyone of a good life, far from all protection and vigilance of the law, without the beneficial influence of society, which promotes morality and civic virtues and culture? The tendency of the Portuguese government has, in this sense, some resemblance to the military colonization system employed in