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---continuation commentary #7b---

As for animals, small Dasypodes and flocks of small Psittaci frequently Psittacus Caroline from Charles d'Orbigny's  'Dictionnaire universel d'histoire naturelle, Paris 1869. Thanks to Lehigh U., Special Collections !cross the traveler's path, and he more than once takes fright at a snake from the doleful genus of Bothrops (pit vipers) lying on the road. The individual homes -- one of which we have sketched here -- of the farmers who live scattered in these fields are humble cottages, large enough for those things which a solitary life requires. They have a roof that projects out (Veranda) on the north or northeast, and do not have many rooms. Across the yard, which usually is bounded by a low fence of stakes or planks, is an open storehouse, which is used for a kitchen. If there are any servants, they live either in the house itself or in a hut built beside the kitchen. That part of the Veranda from Debret's Voyage Pictoresque et Historique au Bresil, Paris 1834. Thanks to which is nourished near the house and does not spend the night confined in open stables is used for pulling, riding, and milking, and so provides everything most necessary for life in the countryside. The agriculture of these farmers is most discernible in the small, disjoined groves of trees (Capoes), in which, once they have been cut and burned, ZeaPhaseoliManihot utilissima and AypimGossypium and some coffee are sown. Most recently a few farmers scattered through the mountain fields have begun cultivating Thea chinensis(Chinese tea). Beside the house, a planted garden is frequently seen, and a nursery of Musa sapientum or Musa paradisiaca is nowhere lacking. The greatest riches of these farmers are cattle and horses. The care of oxen and cows is very widely spread already in this region; as a result, the fields of Sao Paulo are called the Campos de Vaccaria (cattle ranges). You hear this more frequently as you go farther to the south, where, it is known, before you reach the boundaries of Brazil, all the signsof tropical vegetation gradually vanish and all labor, except for some unsuccessfully cultivated fields, is placed in raising herds. 

Cattle ranching from Rugendas's Voyage pittoresque dans le Bresil, Paris 1835. Thanks to Princeton U.

It remains for me to name a few plants which are presented to the kind reader in our etching #7. 

Etching 7 Broad fields from Martius's Flora Brasiliensis 1840. Thanks to Lehigh U., Special Collections ! Color by Alberto and C. Miranda Chor

You have in front to the left Callopisma perfoliatumGomphia floribundaPaspalus conjugatus and Paspalus canescens; in the middle Paspalus eminens and Paspalus erianthus and a shrub of Opuntia; to the right Paspalus erianthus and Gomphrena officinalis. The palm that rises up at the bottom to the left is Acrocomia sclerocarpa.

#7b of 42 expedition commentaries