---continuation commentary #39b---
I experienced and felt these things more than once as I traveled through the province of Sao Paulo. Once, when I had passed the night on horseback in such a forest , between Vila de Areas and Vila de Lorena on the eastern side of the Serra de Mantiqueira and was emerging from the darkness of the wood into a plain lying open to the moon, I seemed to be looking upon a gigantic specter equaling a tree's height, which was nodding like an old man with many arms. It was a great Araucaria, perhaps 80 feet high, covered from its bottom-most branches to its peak with an extremely thick mantle of a pseudo-parasitic Bromeliaceae, Tillandsia recurvata, (1) which was shaking its hanging hairs in the wind.
The noble tree of Araucaria brasiliensis, however, graces only the southern realm of Brazil. Overall, it is found between 30 and 18 degrees southern latitude, and mostly in the eastern region of the provinces of Rio Grande do Sul, Sao Paulo, Santa Catarina and Minas, and in Uruguay. Near the city of Rio, it occurs only individually, as around Tijuca waterfall, where you admire palms and conifers side by side. It is more numerous in several tracts of the Orgaos mountains (2) and scattered about in the south and east of the province of Minas. Here, the tree is either present in the forest singly, usually rather young, or joined in small bands, which you would think the remnants of larger cohorts.
Already in the interior of Minas Province, which is mostly covered with the vegetation of the fields, Araucaria appears less frequently, and toward the north, it does not seem to surpass the 18th parallel. On the other hand, the farther you have passed from Minas province into the province of Sao Paulo, the more common the tree is, especially in the region near the shore, on the mountains of the coastal ridge, and on its sides toward both east and west. The Curitiba region (3) presents entire forests of it, and takes its name from the tree; for, unless I am mistaken, the tree is called Curu in the Tupi language, and tiba is "much". If you believe others, among the Guaranes, Curiez is Araucaria, and iiva or iba will be "tree."
The fruit serves there as the food of wild boars, porcos montezes, which run through the forests in groups, often a hundred strong. In the province of Rio Grande do Sul, Araucaria again forms an entire forest here and there. But towards 30 degrees it disappears in the same manner that the taller forests recede and hold out only along the banks of major rivers. In Uruguay the tree is rather scarce. To the west, it is present in Goyaz and Cuiaba, though not very numerous. Thus, the large area in which it occurs lies between 46° and 60° western longitude (measuring from Paris), and between 15° and 30° southern latitude; and if someone were to place its capital parallel at 25° south, they would not seem far from the truth.
Etching commentary 39b