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---continuation commentary #19&20d----

On the side near the sea there is a low lying, sandy plain, through which creeps a narrow canal that connects the lake and ocean. Everything indicates that this landlocked lake, even now salty, was first a bay of the ocean and then gradually separated itself from it. Such ocean side lakes secluded by sand bars occur along the entire coast of Brazil, and quite frequently in the province of Rio de Janeiro; a little below the promontory of Mt. Gavea toward the south, Lagoa de Comarim(Jacarepagua) is found with a similar form. 

Etching 20 Prospect from Corcovado  from Serra de Tagoahy from Martius's Flora Brasiliensis 1840. Thanks to Lehigh U., Special Collections ! Color by Alberto Chor

Of a thoroughly peculiar character are the sandy hills or sand-banks, those low lying and sandy parts of the earth that the course of time seems in a sense to have arrogated from the ocean to the continental earth. These are only in scattered places vested with a certain vegetation of their own, which is discerned never or only extremely rarely in the interior lands, and imparts a unique aspect to the physiognomy of tropical Brazil; it is very much deserving that native botanists investigate it carefully. Alongside many maritime plants, e.g. SalicorniaConvolvolus brasiliensisPhiloxerus vermicularis, Bucholzia maritima, and Portulaca pilosa, certain Gramina and Cyperacea shoot up there, such as Stenotaphrum glabrumRemirea maritima, a pretty fern, Acrostichum aureum, which often grows broadly here in a large grouping. a certain species of EriocaulonXyris brevifoliaUtriculariaCoccocypselum, Hedyotisseveral Myrtaceae (among which I name Eugenia Michelii, whose fruit Pitanga is very pleasant), CestrumCassiaJonidiumLoranthus rotundifolius, and short, disfigured trees of Schinus terebinthifoliusSophora littoralisHumirium parvifolium, etc. Here and there are found bunches of a palm called Guriri or Pissandro: Diplothemium maritimum. These species, or their relatives, are the ones that wander across the sandy, ocean side hills in the part of Brazil more to the north. But there I also saw some species of Pisonia and CoccolobaChrysobalanus Icaco and Anacardium occidentale
Etching 19 Prospect from Corcovado  from Serra de Tagoahy from Martius's Flora Brasiliensis 1840. Thanks to Lehigh U., Special Collections ! Color by Alberto Chor

But turning now from the eastern part of our illustration to the western, we have before us a look down into the great bay of Rio de Janeiro, without question one of the most beautiful in the entire world. Quite close to the viewer juts out the southern side of the bay, bordering on which is the suburb Bota Fogo, and more to the left stands part of the city proper. The outermost brim, as it were, in this southern section of the bay near the sea, is formed by the large granite cone of Pao de Assucar (Mt. Sugar Loaf), which to one peering down from such a height appears rather small, though sailors passing below it look upon its high, steep rocks with admiration. Next to the isthmus that connects Pao de Assucar with the mainland, Ponta do Leme projects into the sea, beyond which one can see the round island Ilha da Cotintiba.

Etching commentary #19&20d

Convulvulus brasiliensis