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---continuation commentary #19 and 20c----

These mountains divide the entire province into two parts. The low-lying, flat part nearer to the sea is called Beiramar [near the sea]. The other, comprising valleys, elevated plains, and mountain peaks, is set behind the ridges and enjoys a milder climate; it is called Serra Acima [High Ridge]. This far reaching ridge consists of foliaceous granite or granite, and is distinguished by the sheer, pyramidal shape of its peaks, which certainly gave the name of "organ" to the mountains. 

The Organ mountains, Serra dos Orgaos, province of Rio de Janeiro 

From this general appearance departs Mt. Gavea, which, made up of solid, living rock, ascends with a nearly cubic form, in the direction of Africa from Corcovado and not far from the sea; you can observe it easily in etching #20, toward the right. 

In front of it, small islands called "Tijucas" rise from the ocean. The Gavea mountain very recently attracted the attention of archeologists, because ancient characters (7-8 palms) long were said to have been discovered on a certain flat area of its rocks opposite the sea (1). But it is still uncertain whether those letter forms are not just vestiges of a storm that ravaged the rocks.

All the mountains visible from the summit of Corcovado are covered with thick, thriving forests; for, generally speaking, only the plains there, and most of all the low lying plains, seem to have been unforested and covered with field vegetation. This is the character displayed by the plain you see in etching #20, located to the left of Gavea and to the right of the landlocked Lagoa de Rodrigo de Freitas; today an imperial gun-powder factory and a botanical garden with plantations of Thea sinensis [Chinese tea] occupy this plain. The plain visible in etching #19, turned toward the 

interior from Mt. Pao de Assucar, parted by hedges and transformed into cultivated fields, has a similar character.

I pass now from this part of our illustration to Lagoa de Rodrigo de Freitas. To the eyes of someone looking down from above, this landlocked lake with a diameter of about half a league, encircled and overshadowed 

etching 20

to north and south by Corcovado's promontories, appears flat, dark, very deeply blue, as secluded and with as severe a visage as many of the smaller Alpine lakes in Germany. But the crystalline air of the sky diffused above it, the exceedingly luxuriant tropical vegetation that embraces it on all sides across dripping rocks, fertile fields and abundant thickets, truly lend the lake an ornament that you would seek for in vain in our lands endowed with lesser natural gifts. 

Etching commentary #19 and 20c