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For the ethnographer of America, an enigma remains; that only very contrary people seem to have these eccentricities. We observed the use of the Parica among the Mauhes where, however, thanks to the civilization of the whole tribe, it is now practiced less brutally. The use of another powder produces identical drunkenness. Ipadu taken from coca leaves (Erythroxylon coca, L.), which we

encountered among the Miranhas and other travelers found among Peruvian populations.

Erythroxylon coca

After we had observed the life of the Muras in their huts, we began to examine their vessels. One was an type of light wood, fitted, and twenty feet long; the others were simply layers of cork, attached with vines, and tied at both ends, forming a half cylindrical straw of 12 to 15 feet in length.

In such miserable boats, three or four Muras are exposed in the great rivers, and when, by chance, little by little the boats are filled with water, the Indians swim by their side, until they are emptied, putting them back in shape to welcome the crew. When we said goodbye to the Muras, we left them some boxes of rum, which they seized with true greed, pressing them to the breast with their arms crossed. Apparently, they deliberated at length on how to prove their gratitude; and when we were leaving the coast, they brought us, in return, a great tortoise as a gift.

At noon on the second of our departure from Tupinambaranas, we saw the high ravines of red mud of Cararauacu (Gaviao-grande), on the northern bank of the river.

Village of Gaviao-grande

We went on to disembark, a dangerous business, because of the impetuosity of the stream in the main hole, which, after all, did not give us any new spectacle, for the north bank, covered with thick woods, was in no way different from the general surroundings . We have decided to avoid similar side trips, as do seafarers in general, so as not to waste time. As we returned to the large canoe, two of the Muras canoes came with us, one of which was full of skinned and dry monkeys. They were very kind, for they, always grinning and showing their teeth, offered us pieces of their repugnant provision. For a few weeks they had been busy, on the northern bank, in supplying meat to their horde. The animals had been skinned, gutted, and grilled or broiled. I do not remember seeing anything more unpleasant than this portion of bodies in a human form, which, with cannibalistic gaiety, they viewed with the greedy eyes of the hunter.