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view of the Serra de Capanema in front of the Arraial de Santo Antonio de Casa Branca, where we found a good landing for the night at a well-stocked shop, because of proximity to the capital.

Etching 23 Thickets near Serra S. Antonio

The fields in this region have thickets of Sidas, Murtas, Vernonias, especially a bluish-green Spermacoce, and the sandy soil was almost all so loose that the next day was hard for the animals to toil under a heat, oppressive throughout this shadowless solitude. To this inconvenience was often added another, that is, the way was not visible in the sand, and only with difficulty and caution did we recognize the old footprints of the previous mule trains; We too often had to be blindly led by the mules or mule driver, who had experience. Thus, we continued our journey through hills and valleys, alternately, to the top of a high mountain, where the small Rio das Pedras runs which is in the parish of the same name, passing by some well-known gold washes. Later that afternoon, we climbed the rocky, almost impassable slope, littered with scattered debris, and

Coche d'agua waterfall

finally reached, on the other side, at nightfall, the lonely Cocho d'Agua farm, where the owner, a man of color, ensign from the Sabara militias, welcomed us and entertained us by talking about Father Freitas' rich gold mines in Congonhas do Mato Dentro. The next day, we passed the village of Santo Antonio de Cima and Santa Rita, located on the right and left banks of the Rio das Velhas,

among banana plantations, and soon we had the pleasure of meeting the celebrated miner in person. He welcomed us with perfect hospitality, showed us his portable library, - a great rarity in the country, - which consisted of some works by Rousseau, Voltaire and others; He talked about Kant and Napoleon, and ordered us to be shown his inventions, as well as the nearby gold washes. Distant farms are deprived of all assistance from the most inhabited centers; every rich farmer, therefore, is forced to provide for himself the necessities of his house by having his slaves be taught crafts. In general, there are the farm workers and apparatus for shoemakers, tailors, weavers, locksmiths, masons, bricklayers, hunters, miners, for farm work, etc., which in a populous city are divided into special corporations. The foreman of the work is a jack of all trades, a confident mulatto, and the order of the day is determined as in a cloister. The farmer acts as governor, judge, and doctor on his property. Sometimes he also plays the role of priest, or manages the office of the parish in the neighborhood chapel. His main concern is therefore to increase slavery, the capital of the farm, and to protect it against disease. When diseases occur,