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between Bahia, Pernambuco and the interior of the province animates this retired valley. By the Tocantins River waterway, which since 1773 has been in communication with the province of Para (1), the distance is still one hundred leagues.

Rio Tocatins to Province of Grao Para

Sailing on this rushing river begins in Porto Real, near the Pombal Village, where it already has considerable width and depth. From there, the city of Para is reached in fifteen or sixteen days; and sailing upstream, one month is spent traveling. We were expecting some interesting clarification from our friend Dr. Pohl, for he himself had traveled this route to a great extent. According to information given to us by a professional navigator, whose veracity is confirmed by the agreement with the reports of Manuel Jose de Oliveira Bastos (2), this navigation is made particularly painful by the numerous "itaipavas" (3), by the rapids and small falls of the river, which at various points, such as the Santo Antonio, Itaboca and Praia Grande waterfalls, obliges travelers to unload part or all of their cargo at other sites, such as Repartimento, Agua de Saude, Cajueiro and Tauiri, as it is necessary to ease the canoes. There is danger because of diseases such as intermittent, typhoid and putrid fever, and dysenteries, which frequently affect the crew, especially north of the Tocantins meeting with Araguaia, and because of the hostility of the Indians living there. These belong to the tribes of apinajes, pinajes-accus, noroguajes, xerentes (xarantes), xavantes, carajas, cortis and tapacoas. Part of these tribes inhabit the groves that appear, mainly in the north of the river basin, and they use small canoes; another part lives in the hills, in the rich gold region of Araguaia, up to the watershed between Tocantins, Paraiba and Rio das Balsas. As they are wandering around and almost always harboring hostile intentions against the settlers and travelers, the manner in which these tribes live with one another, and the boundaries of their territory, cannot be clearly specified. According to the news, which we later obtained in the province of Piaui, it seems likely that the aforementioned tribes are sections of the Jes Indians, who also inhabit this province, in the upper part of the Paraiba River, not numerous, but certainly very widespread.

Sherents (4) constitute a large cannibalistic nation. They say they kill and eat their own relatives, when they are weakened


(I) Antonio Luis Tavares Lisbon this year undertook the first trip to Tocantins, departing from Pontal, by order of Governor Jose de Almeida de Vasconcelos de Sobral and Carvalho.
"Route of the city of Santa Maria de Belem do Grao-Para along the Tocantins River to the Royal Port of Pontal" (Rio de Janeiro, 1811).
2) Teodoro Sampaia: It is an indigenous word to express a bank of gravel, or crossing of small stones, in the riverbed. (Rev. Note, Inst., Hist. Geogr. Bras.),
3) The following information in the text was written in Vila Rica by Mr. Padre Jardim, and we thank the priest, who had lived for a long time in Goias. (Author's note).