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---continuation commentary #13k----


The first kind of these parasites I would call the Rhizobdalli; to be Philodendron imbe  from Martius's Flora Brasiliensis 1840. Thanks to Lehigh U., Special Collections ! included among these are several Artocarpeae, such as Brosimum microcarpum and Brosimum discolorCussapoa latifoliaPerebea gujanensis and several species of Fici; from the order of the Marcgraviaceae, the genera NoranteaRuyshia and, in a way, Marcgravia, in which the stem too has been observed growing in the body beneath it, though it is little evident; from the order of the MyrtaceaeGustavia brasilianaand Myrcia egensis; among the Melastomaceae, Blakea quinquenervis and Blakea parasitica; among the Asclepideae and Apocyneae, many species not yet sufficiently known from different genera, several species from the Araceae notable for the number of their aerial roots, of which I mention only Philodendron, which I have already said is called "Sipo de Imbe" in Brazil

From the Leguminosae, I would place among those "Rhizobdalli Sipo de BBauhinia_guianensis, unknown photographer. Thanks to www.nybg.org  Fair useEscada" or "Sipo de Mororo" to the Brazilians, Caulotretus gujanensisCaulotretus Outimouta and Caulotretus macrostachya, and, from the Menispermeae, some species of Cocculus; finally, it is probable that several species of Cissus belong here. In these plants, aerial roots rise from the branches and trunk; advancing usually at a very sharp angle, they reach downward by the nearest path. Having gained the ground, they form a swelling from which they put out a glome of fibers that is more or less strong, and with these they affix themselves. But where the roots touch a trunk of wood along the way, they push themselves into it and nourish the plant parasitically, though the primary root too is occupied in this. Those aerial roots are usually slender, smooth and covered with an entirely glabrous, thin, pellucid cuticle. At the tip of the root is a soft, green nipple, around which the cuticle dries into testacious fringe. While this liveliest part is growing, several folded, concentric membranes come forth, one covering another; these are seen until rooting is entirely completed, and gradually disappear thereafter.(11)

Otherwise I ought to add expressly that by no means all the vines of Brazil should be numbered parasites. Among the SapindaceaeHippocrateaePassiflora alata from Capt. George Cook's Botanical Cabinet 1817. Thanks to Lehigh U., Special Collections !Malpighiaceae, TrigoniaeBignoniaceaeConvolvulaceaePassifloraeCucurbitaceae and Aristolochiae, I found parasites no more than in the species of Clematis and in the genera belonging to the order of the DilleniaceaeDavillaDoliocarpus and Tetracera. In the herbaceous vines of the Leguminosae and Compositae (Mikaniae), in the Rhamneae(Rhamnea Gouania) and Polygaleae(Polygalea Securidacae, Polygalea Comespermae), I saw no trace of parasitism. They seem especially to be plants that contain colored, milky or muddy juices, such as everyone knows can be found in the AraceaeArtocarpeae, Apocyneae, AsclepiadeaeMarcgraviaceae and Menispermeae.

Etching commentary #13k